What Is Network Security? Types & Importance Explained

What Is Network Security? Types & Importance Explained

Network security encompasses a wide range of technologies, procedures, and protocols strategically crafted to safeguard the integrity, confidentiality, and availability of computer networks and the associated data.

This involves implementing measures to prevent and monitor unauthorized access, misuse, alteration, or denial of the network and its resources.

Network administrators typically achieve this through a combination of hardware devices, such as routers and firewalls, and software programs, such as antimalware tools. Techniques used in network security include data backup, encryption, user authentication, intrusion detection systems, and continuous network monitoring.

How does network security work?

You can think of network security as an onion, with many layers that protect different aspects of the network. Network security works on various principles and employs multiple defenses to keep a network safe.

Below are some common steps taken when implementing network security for an organization:

1. Establish Security Policy

This is the first and most critical step in the process. It involves creating cybersecurity policies, which include identifying what needs protection, assessing threats and vulnerabilities, and outlining protocols to follow when an attack occurs. These policies guide handling sensitive information, managing hardware, and instilling cyber hygiene among employees.

Different frameworks can help guide policies, especially for new networks. For example, the zero trust security model lays the groundwork for the strategy, design, and implementation of IT systems to ensure each aspect of the network is secure.

2. Implementation of Security Controls

Based on the security policy, various technical and procedural mechanisms are enforced to protect the network. It involves installing appropriate hardware like firewalls, IPS/IDS devices, and software solutions like antivirus/antimalware, intrusion detection/prevention systems, and VPN. This step also includes configuring systems for maximum security by enabling secure configurations, closing unnecessary ports, encrypting data, and implementing network segmentation.

3. Authentication and Access Control

Only authorized users should have access to the resources they truly need. For example, HR staff should not be able to access accounting information. This involves implementing authentication systems such as login and password, two-factor authentication, digital certificates, and permission groups.

Physical access control is just as important to network security as a firewall. Bad actors with physical access to your server room can bypass many network security features put in place. Key card access, security cameras, door alarms, and proper guest check-in procedures all play a large role in keeping your network safe.

4. Network Monitoring and Intrusion Detection

Continuous monitoring of the network is crucial. It helps to analyze normal network behavior and detect anomalies or suspicious activities. Intrusion detection and prevention systems (IDS/IPS), security event and incident management systems (SIEM), and network traffic analysis are commonly used.

5. Response to Incidents and Recovery

The organization must respond quickly to minimize damage and restore services whenever an attack is detected. After an attack is mitigated, the network security team investigates how the breach occurred and the steps needed to prevent future incidents.

This typically involves an internal audit and review of event logs to understand what the attacker did, and how they entered the network.

The primary goal of network security is to protect information and assets within the network from malicious, intentional actions and unintentional errors of legitimate users. By creating multiple layers of defense, network security aims to deter, delay, and detect most cyber threats.

6. Network Audits and Testing

Vulnerability scans, audits, and penetration testing are crucial tools in the cybersecurity toolkit, and they all play distinct but complementary roles in ensuring the security of a network.

Vulnerability scans are automated processes that look for known weaknesses within a system. These scans can identify out-of-date software, misconfigured settings, or other areas that attackers may exploit. By detecting these flaws early, organizations can take the necessary steps to fix them before they are exploited.

Audits are more comprehensive and in-depth evaluations of an organization's security policies and procedures. Unlike vulnerability scans, they're not just limited to technical aspects but include operational and administrative components as well. Audits may involve manual reviews, interviews with staff, and examination of documentation.

Penetration testing, or pen testing, is more aggressive. It simulates a real-world attack on the network, employing the same tactics and tools that actual attackers might use. The goal is to identify how far an attacker could get if they were to target the network. It can uncover vulnerabilities that automated scans might miss and offers a practical demonstration of what could happen if bad actors exploit vulnerabilities.

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What are the challenges of network security?

Network security faces a range of challenges, these include:

  • Rapid Evolution of Threats: Cyber threats are constantly evolving and becoming more sophisticated, making it difficult for network security solutions to keep pace.
  • Increase in Remote Work: Securing company networks has become more challenging with more remote employees. Employees may use personal devices or unsecured networks, presenting new vulnerabilities.
  • BYOD (Bring Your Own Device) Culture: The trend of employees using their own devices for work also presents new security risks, as these devices often lack the same security measures as company devices.
  • Complexity of Security Solutions: Many security solutions are complex and require a high level of expertise to manage, which can be costly and time-consuming effectively.
  • Limited Budgets: Many organizations, especially small businesses, may need more funds to invest in robust network security.
  • Compliance with Regulations: Ensuring compliance with ever-changing and increasingly strict data privacy regulations can be challenging.
  • Insider Threats: Not all threats come from outside an organization. Insider threats, whether malicious or accidental, can be just as damaging.
  • Lack of Awareness: Many network security breaches happen because of user error. Lack of awareness about security protocols and cyber threats among employees is a significant challenge.
  • Cloud Adoption: As more companies move data and services to the cloud, ensuring the security of these off-premise assets can be complex.
  • IoT Devices: The increase in internet-connected devices presents more points of entry for cybercriminals.

Managing these challenges requires a comprehensive and proactive approach to network security, involving continuous employee training, regularly updating security measures, and using a multi-layered defense strategy.

What are the benefits of strong network security measures?

Protects Sensitive Information

Network security not only safeguards sensitive data, such as customer information and internal communications, from unauthorized access or theft but also protects against data loss. Employing encryption, access control, and other techniques ensures that private data remains confidential and is only available to those authorized to access it.

Increases Productivity

By keeping the network free from threats like viruses, malware, and ransomware, network security ensures system availability, leading to increased productivity. A secure network means fewer disruptions from malware infections or cyberattacks, allowing employees to focus on their work and achieve more within the same time frame.

Helps Meet Regulatory Compliance

Many industries must comply with certain data protection regulations. Network security helps businesses meet these requirements and avoid heavy fines for non-compliance. Companies can operate within legal bounds and maintain good standing with regulators by implementing required controls and adhering to regulations.

Prevents Unauthorized Access

Network security tools can restrict access to network resources, ensuring that only authorized personnel can access critical information. Techniques like two-factor authentication and strict access policies ensure that only those with the proper credentials can reach the sensitive areas of a network, protecting against insider threats and external hackers.

Improves Your Company's Reputation

By ensuring data security, businesses can build and maintain trust among customers. This helps improve the company's reputation and can give them a competitive edge. Trust is paramount in business relationships, and a strong network security posture communicates a commitment to safeguarding customer data.

Guards Against Business Disruption

Network security helps maintain business operations' stability and reliability by preventing attacks. A well-protected network keeps business processes running smoothly and ensures that critical systems remain available, even in the face of growing cyber threats. This proves especially true for large enterprises where an hour of downtime could mean hundreds of thousands of dollars in lost revenue.

Reduces Downtime

Effective and proactive security measures reduce the amount of potential downtime caused by data breaches, system infections, or data loss scenarios. Downtime can be costly in terms of lost productivity and revenue, so minimizing it through strong network security practices is essential for business continuity.

Saves Costs

Although robust network security requires investment, it can save organizations from costly data breaches and potential financial loss from such incidents. Implementing proper security measures can be far less expensive than the recovery costs associated with a major breach.

Enhances Flexibility

With a secure network, businesses can better respond to new opportunities and challenges without compromising security. The ability to innovate and adapt is crucial in today's dynamic business environment, and a strong security foundation supports this agility.

Protects End Users

Network security protects employees and end users from phishing attacks and other online threats. Organizations can protect their users from scams, malware, and other threats compromising personal information or system integrity by properly filtering, scanning, and other defensive measures.

What are the types of network attacks and threats?

Organizations need to be wary of several types of network attacks and threats:


These malicious software programs include viruses, worms, and trojans attackers designed to infect a network or server and disrupt its operations.

Businesses can protect themselves from malware by using robust antivirus and antimalware solutions, regularly updating and patching their software, and educating employees about the dangers of downloading and running unknown files or clicking on suspicious links.


This is a deceptive attack where attackers pose as legitimate entities to trick users into revealing sensitive information such as usernames, passwords, and credit card numbers.

Businesses should deploy email filters that detect and quarantine phishing emails. Employee education programs can also help staff recognize phishing attempts and understand the importance of not clicking on dubious links or sharing sensitive information.

Man-in-the-Middle (MitM) Attacks

In these attacks, the attacker intercepts communication between two parties to steal or manipulate the data in transit.

Businesses can prevent MitM attacks by enforcing the use of secure, encrypted connections (HTTPS, VPNs), using strong encryption for Wi-Fi networks, and deploying wireless intrusion detection systems to identify rogue access points.

Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS) Attacks

These attacks overload a network, server, or system, making it inaccessible to its intended users. DDoS attacks can be mitigated by using specialized DDoS protection services, implementing rate limiting, and maintaining redundant network resources to ensure availability during an attack.

Zero-Day Attack

A zero-day attack exploits a vulnerability in an application or system that is not yet known to the developers, meaning there's no available patch.

To defend against zero-day attacks, it's essential to employ security solutions that focus on behavior-based detection techniques. Additionally, segmenting the network can help contain and limit the spread of any potential attacks.

SQL Injection

This is a type of attack where an attacker injects malicious SQL code into a database query, which can then reveal information from the database.

Businesses can defend against SQL injection attacks by using prepared statements with parameterized queries, regularly updating and patching database management systems, and employing web application firewalls to detect and block such attacks.

Brute Force Attack

In this type of attack, an attacker attempts to gain access to a system by trying countless combinations of usernames and passwords until they find one that works.

Businesses should implement account lockout policies after a certain number of failed login attempts, use complex password policies, and consider two-factor authentication (2FA) for added security.

Advanced Persistent Threats (APTs)

These are attacks where an unauthorized user gains access to a network and stays there undetected for a prolonged period, usually intending to steal information.

Detecting and preventing APTs requires a multi-faceted approach, including network segmentation, continuous monitoring and logging of network activities, and utilizing threat intelligence services to stay updated about new threat actors and tactics.


This is a type of malicious software that encrypts a victim’s files. Subsequently, the assailant requests a ransom from the victim as a condition for restoring access to the data after receiving payment.

Businesses can defend against ransomware by maintaining up-to-date backups of critical data, keeping systems and antimalware software updated, and training employees to recognize and avoid malicious email attachments and links.

Social Engineering

This involves manipulating individuals to break standard security practices, often through deception, and give up confidential information.

The best defense against social engineering is education. Regularly training employees to identify and report potential social engineering attempts can significantly reduce the risk. Also, implementing strict protocols for verifying and handling sensitive information is crucial.

What are the types of network security?

Access Control

This method limits the kinds of users who can access the network by setting permissions and restrictions based on their profiles. Organizations can keep critical systems secure by controlling who can access specific parts of the network and preventing unauthorized users from accessing sensitive data or resources.

Antivirus and Antimalware Software

These tools protect end-user devices and servers from threats like viruses, worms, ransomware, and Trojans. Regular updates and scans help detect and remove malware before it can cause damage, helping maintain a clean and secure environment and stop malware from spreading across the network.

Application Security

Application security includes tools and methods used to protect software and apps from potential threats. This involves regular security testing, patch management, and secure development practices, ensuring that applications do not become weak points that attackers can exploit.

Behavioral Analytics

These tools identify abnormalities in user behavior, which might indicate a cyber threat or malicious activity. Analyzing patterns and detecting unusual actions provide an additional layer of security and enable timely responses to potential incidents. Behavior monitoring can also detect account takeover attacks to limit their impact.

Data Loss Prevention (DLP)

DLP tools stop people from sending critical information outside the network. Monitoring and controlling data transfers prevent sensitive information from leaking to unauthorized external sources, safeguarding intellectual property and customer information.

Email Security

Email security applications block incoming attacks and control outbound messages to protect sensitive data. They filter spam, scan for malicious attachments, and provide encryption, ensuring that email communication remains a secure and trustworthy channel.

Next-Generation Firewalls

A next-generation firewall serves as a network barrier, scrutinizing and controlling network traffic based on advanced security protocols. Next-generation firewalls regulate access based on simple criteria and incorporate advanced features like intrusion prevention, application awareness, and threat intelligence.

Intrusion Prevention Systems

These tools scan network traffic to identify and block threats actively. They continually analyze traffic for signs of malicious activities, offering real-time protection against attacks that aim to exploit network vulnerabilities.

Mobile Device Security

With the rise in mobile users, securing mobile devices is crucial to prevent them from being a weak point in the network. This includes implementing security policies, encryption, and remote management capabilities to protect mobile devices and the data they access.

Network Segmentation

This process involves separating the network into various parts to manage and control data flow and reduce the attack surface. By isolating different network segments, organizations can enhance security, manage traffic more effectively, and limit potential damage from cyberattacks.

Security Information and Event Management (SIEM)

SIEM software collects and analyzes activity from various resources, helping detect and report security incidents. By centralizing data and providing intelligent insights, SIEM solutions aid in quick response and recovery, enhancing overall security posture.

Virtual Private Network (VPN)

VPN involves an encryption process used to protect the connection between an endpoint and a network, frequently established over the internet. This secure tunnel ensures that data transmitted remains confidential and immune to eavesdropping, making remote connections more secure.

Web Security

Internet security or web security controls web-based threats and keeps the company's internet presence safe. This security layer protects against malicious websites, web application vulnerabilities, and other online risks by filtering and scanning web content.

Wireless Security

This type of security is specific to wireless networks and includes mechanisms to prevent unauthorized access and the spread of malware on a wireless network. Implementing strong authentication, encryption, and regular monitoring helps maintain wireless connection security.

Endpoint Security

Endpoint security protects client devices, like laptops or mobile devices. Securing endpoints with proper security software and policies minimizes the risk of malware entering the network through these devices.

Advanced Threat Protection (ATP)

ATP refers to a specialized security solution carefully crafted to protect a network or system from sophisticated hacking techniques and malware attacks that target sensitive data. Through continuous monitoring, threat intelligence, and multi-layered defenses, ATP provides robust protection against complex threats.

Cloud Security and Encryption

Protecting the data stored in the cloud and the encryption of data at rest and in transit is equally important. Cloud security measures ensure that cloud-based systems and data are shielded from unauthorized access, while encryption techniques keep information secure during storage and transmission. Both aspects are vital in today's distributed computing landscape.

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Zero Trust Security. Design Without Complexities

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What Is Zero Trust Network Access?

Zero Trust Network Access (ZTNA), commonly referred to as a zero trust architecture, represents a security framework demanding authentication and authorization for all users, regardless of their location, inside or outside an organization's network. This approach ensures continuous verification of their security configuration and posture before granting access to applications and data.

This approach is based on the principle of "never trust, always verify," which means it eliminates the concept of trust based on network location within a security perimeter. Instead, ZTNA treats every access attempt as if it originates from an untrusted network, thereby verifying every user and device sequentially to ensure security.

The goal of ZTNA is to protect enterprise networks from breach or intrusion, and it is increasingly being used as more workloads move to the cloud, and employees work remotely or use personal devices for work.

Key components of ZTNA include:

  • Identity and multi-factor authentication: Ensure the user is who they claim to be.
  • Device health checks: The device attempting to gain access should meet certain security standards.
  • Network-segmentation: Resource access is limited to reduce risk and lateral movement across a network.
  • Least privileged access: Users are given the minimum access levels necessary for their work.
  • Real-time analytics: Continuous monitoring for any unusual or risky user activity.

Implementing a ZTNA approach can help prevent data breaches by reducing the attack surface, allowing for better visibility into network activity, and providing a consistent and scalable way to apply security policy across the network.

What are some types of network security software tools?

Next-Generation Firewalls

Next-generation firewalls (NGFWs) act as advanced shields between your network and the internet, allowing only the traffic that conforms to defined security policies. Unlike standard firewalls, which primarily focus on permitting or blocking traffic based on IP addresses and ports, NGFWs delve deeper, examining the content of traffic for malicious activities and integrating functionalities like intrusion prevention, application awareness, and advanced threat intelligence.

Antivirus and Antimalware software

These tools continuously scan for malware and viruses, ensuring no malicious software harms your network. Trusted software options include Crowdstrike Falcon, Trend Micro, and Bitdefender.

Intrusion Prevention Systems (IPS)

These systems identify fast-spreading threats, such as zero-day or stealth attacks. Some effective IPS solutions include Cisco's FirePOWER, McAfee's Network Security Platform, and Trend Micro's TippingPoint.

Virtual Private Network (VPN)

VPNs provide a secure tunnel for network traffic, encrypting data and providing anonymity online. Most enterprise firewalls such as SonicWall offer VPN tunneling, allowing administrators to establish secure remote connections.

Network Segmentation Tools

These tools partition a network into smaller parts (neither visible nor accessible to each other) to contain an attack or breach within a single segment. Software-defined networking (SDN) technologies from vendors like Cisco and VMware can facilitate network segmentation.

Email Security Tools

Software like Barracuda, Mimecast, or Proofpoint protects your network from phishing attempts, spam, malicious links or attachments, and other email-based threats.

Secure Web Gateways

Secure web gateways are vital tools for network security. They monitor and filter outbound and inbound web traffic, blocking malicious websites and content. By using URL filtering, malware detection, and application controls, they prevent threats like malware downloads and phishing attempts.

These gateways often employ SSL inspection to scrutinize encrypted traffic, ensuring harmful payloads can't hide behind encryption. This layered approach ensures a safer browsing experience and reduced risk for organizations.

Wireless Security Tools

Tools like AirMagnet Wi-Fi Analyzer, inSSIDer, or Kismet protect your Wi-Fi networks, which can often be a vulnerable attack entry point.

Data Loss Prevention (DLP) Tools

DLP tools like McAfee DLP, Symantec DLP, or Forcepoint DLP prevent unauthorized users from sending sensitive information outside the network.

Network Access Control (NAC) Tools

Tools like Aruba ClearPass, Cisco ISE, or ForeScout CounterACT control who and what can access your network. Administrators can also configure access control in their firewalls and across Active Directory. These NAC solutions are trending out of popularity across campus and branch enterprise IT deployments, replaced by next-generation approaches to zero trust networking, given their complex integration requirements designed for legacy infrastructures.

Security information and event management (SIEM) systems

Tools like Splunk, LogRhythm, or IBM's QRadar provide real-time analysis of security alerts generated across your network.

Encryption Tools

Software like VeraCrypt, AxCrypt, or BitLocker can encrypt sensitive data, making it unreadable to unauthorized users. Many enterprise backup solutions also offer encryption.

Trust Nothing, Authenticate and Isolate Everything

Ready to move your enterprise network security to zero trust? Explore how Nile Access Service sets a new standard for secure connectivity in your business across your campus and branch locations. To radically reduce potential attack surface and to automatically lock down any malware / ransomware presence to only infected devices, Nile orchestrates zero trust isolation of each connected user and device within its wired and wireless access network fabric.

With Nile Access Service, you can rest assured knowing your network performance outcomes like availability and capacity are guaranteed. This includes built-in zero-trust security measures and usage-based billing for scalable, flexible consumption. The Nile service eliminates the network management burden by offloading key lifecycle management tasks to AI automation, helping you to focus on what you do best.

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